Division of Low Temperature and Superconductivity (DLTS) is the successor of the Department of Low Temperatures, from which the Institute of Low Temperature and Structural Research originated, when it was brought into existence on 1 October 1966. Since the beginning,  fundamental interests of the Division have been superconductivity, thermal properties of solids and the development and use of cryogenic techniques. The current list of subjects does not differ much from that, focusing on high-temperature superconductivity research, transport of heat in solids and cryocrystals. The place of cryotechnology has been taken over by cryothermometry, which resulted in founding the Laboratory of Temperature Standard at DLTS, which is a depositary of the national temperature standard in the Institute.

Pracownicy Oddziału Niskich Temperatur i Nadprzewodnictwa


  • The formation and propagation of thermal excitations in crystals created from noble gases and simple molecular gases.
  • Research on scattering of phonons in nanocomposite materials obtained on the basis of simple van der Waals crystals.
  • Mechanisms of heat transfer in molecular crystals and new materials for electro-optical applications.
  • Examination of coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in doped compounds such as AFe2As2 for A = Ba, Eu, Ca (single crystals, for example with cobalt substituting iron, etc.).
  • Studies of the magnetic properties and search for superconductivity in materials with low carrier density (twining planes in crystals of bismuth or topological insulators, GaN nanoceramics,  plane separating SrTiO3 and LaAlO3).
  • Anisotropy of  thermoelectric coefficients upon the application of uniaxial pressure, allowing detwinning of single crystal samples and examination of the nematic state of iron-based superconducting materials.
  • The dynamics of magnetic vortices in single crystals of doped high-temperature superconductors.
  • Phenomena related to interaction between superconductivity and magnetism in spin valve nano-sized heterostructures.
  • Mechanisms of dissipation of electromagnetic energy in commercial, high-temperature superconducting composites.
  • Research on metrological characteristics of model platinum thermometers of new generation in low temperatures.

The Division also includes the Laboratory of Temperature Standard, which is an accredited national calibration laboratory. It performs calibration of temperature measurements in the range from 0oC to 156oC, using the fact that the Institute is the depositary of the national standard of temperature in the range from 13.8033K to 273.16K.

Important publications in 2005-2015:

  • B.A. Danilchenko, T. Paszkiewicz, S. Wolski, A. Jeżowski, and T. Plackowski: Heat Capacity and Phonon Mean Free Path of Wurtzite GaN. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 (2006) 061901 (3).
  • P. Stachowiak, E. Pisarska, A. Jeżowski, and A.I. Krivchikov: Dominant Mechanisms of Phonon Scattering in Low-Temperature Phases of Solid Methanes. Phys. Rev. B 73 (2006) 134301 (5).
  • A. Jeżowski, J. Mucha, R. Pązik, and W. Stręk: Influence of Crystallite Size on the Thermal Conductivity in BaTiO3 Nanoceramics. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90 (2007) 114104 (3).
  • P.J.W. Philip, R. Puźniak, F. Balakirev, K. Rogacki, J. Karpinski, N.D. Zhigadlo, and B. Batlogg: High Magnetic-Field Scales and Critical Currents in SmFeAs(O,F) Crystals. Nature Mater. 9 (2010) 628−633.
  • M. Matusiak, Z. Bukowski, and J. Karpinski: Nernst Effect in Single Crystals of the Pnictide Superconductor CaFe1.92Co0.08As2 and Parent Compound CaFe2As2. Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010) 020510R (4).
  • A. Błachowski, K. Ruebenbauer, J. Żukrowski, Z. Bukowski, K. Rogacki, P.J.W. Moll, and J. Karpinski: Interplay between Magnetism and Superconductivity in EuFe2−xCoxAs2 Studied by 57Fe and 151Eu Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. B 84 (2011) 174503 (8).
  • A. Błachowski, K. Ruebenbauer, J. Żukrowski, K. Rogacki, Z. Bukowski, and J. Karpinski: Shape of Spin Density Wave versus Temperature in AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Ba, Eu): A Mössbauer Study. Phys. Rev. B 83
    (2011) 134410 (12).
  • V.H. Tran, T.A. Zaleski, Z. Bukowski, L.M. Tran, and A.J. Zaleski: Tuning Superconductivity in Eu(Fe0.81Co0.19)2As2 with Magnetic Fields. Phys. Rev. B 85 (2012) 052502 (4).
  • Z. Guguchia, A. Amato, J. Kang, H. Luetkens, P.K. Biswas, G. Prando, F. von Rohr, Z. Bukowski, A. Shengelaya, H. Keller, E. Morenzoni, R.M. Fernandes, and R. Khasanov: Direct Evidence for a Pressure-Induced Nodal Superconducting Gap in the Ba0.65Rb0.35Fe2As2 Superconductor. Nature Commun. 6 (2015) 8863 (8).
  • D. Szewczyk, A. Jeżowski, G.A. Vdovichenko, A.I. Krivchikov, F.J. Bermejo, J.Ll. Tamarit, L.C. Pardo, and J.W. Taylor: Glassy Dynamics versus Thermodynamics: The Case of 2-Adamantanone. J. Phys.
    Chem. B 119 (2015) 8468−8474.


Devices for sample synthesis and initial characterization of materials

  • X-ray diffractometer to examine powder samples (DRON).
  • Scanning electron microscope Philips 515 with energy spectrometer EDAX PV9800.
  • Muffle and tube furnaces with working temperatures ranging from 0 to 1600 °

Measuring devices

  • PPMS (Physical Property Measurement System) from Quantum Design with a temperature range 1.9 - 400 K and magnetic fields up to 9 T with inserts allowing measurement of:
    • specific heat;
    • AC and DC magnetization (sample extraction method);
    • DC magnetization (torque method);
    • thermal conductivity;
    • AC and DC electrical conductivity (with rotator);
    • thermo-  and galvanomagnetic effects (with rotator).
  • Oxford Instruments susceptometr with temperature range of 1.9 - 350 K and magnetic field up to 9 T and inserts enabling the measurement of:
    • DC and AC magnetization (sample extraction method);
    • DC and AC electrical conductivity.
  • Oxford Instruments Teslatron with temperature range of 1.8 - 300 K equipped with a 12 T magnet with measuring inserts for:
    • AC and DC electrical conductivity;
    • magnetocaloric effect;
    • thermo- and galvanomagnetic effects.
  • Apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity of the solidified gases in a temperature range of 1 - 50 K.
  • Equipment for measuring thermal conductivity and electrical resistance of solids in the range of 5 - 300 K.
  • SQUID susceptometer for testing magnetic susceptibility of cryocrystals in a temperature range 4 - 40 K.
  • SQUID dilatometer to measure the thermal expansion of solids in the  temperature range of 1 - 50 K.
  • Adiabatic calorimeter for measuring specific heat of the crystals in a temperature range of 30 - 430 K.
  • Research station for measurements of energy losses of superconducting wires and tapes at liquid nitrogen temperature and for pulsed magnetic fields and pulsed transport current.
  • Research station for calibration of thermometers at fixed points of the temperature scale from 13 K to 430 K with uncertainty of less than 1 mK.
  • Station for calibration of thermometers using comparative method in a temperature range from -196oC to 440oC with an uncertainty of 10 mK.
  • Precise DC and AC resistance bridges for measurements with uncertainty better than 0.1 ppm.